Landscape Design and Maintenance
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Which group of terms describes the shape of leaves?
alternate, opposite, whorled
These terms describe leaf arrangement on the stem. "Alternate" describes leaves on one side of the stem being positioned mid-way to the leaves on the other side of the stem. "Opposite" describes leaves on one side of the stem being directly paired with leaves on the other side of the stem. "Whorled" describes leaves that are arranged in a circle around a common point on the stem.
parallel, pinnate, palmate
These terms describe different types of leaf venation. "Parallel" describes venation that is in direct alignment with one another; "pinnate" describes venation with one central vein and many secondary veins coming off the main vein like a feather; and "palmate" describes venation radiating from a central point like the fingers of a hand.
serrate, entire, lobed
These terms describe different types of leaf margins. "Serrate" leaves have notched marginal edges like that of a saw, "entire" leaves have smooth margins without notches or indentations, and "lobed" leaves have indentations along the margins.
simple, pinnately compound, palmate
Question 1 Explanation:
“Simple” leaves have undivided blades. "Pinnately compound” leaves have leaflets arranged oppositely along a central midrib like a feather. "Palmate” leaves have lobes radiating from a central point like the fingers of a hand.
What is a reason to apply mulch around trees and plants?
to protect the tree or plant from mechanical damage
to provide stabilization to the root ball
Although mulch does stabilize temperature and moisture fluctuations of the soil, it will not physically stabilize the root ball.
to absorb solar radiation
Depending on the type of mulch used, it absorbs and reflects solar radiation to varying degrees. However, its purpose is not to absorb solar radiation, but rather to reduce heat gain, especially during the summer.
to kill plant pests that inhabit the soil
Mulch does not kill plant pests. If too thick of a layer of mulch is applied, it can create a habitat for pests and thus lead to increased pest pressure on the given plant.
Question 2 Explanation:
Mulching helps to reduce temperature and moisture fluctuations that could damage tree roots. Keeping mulched rings or beds around trees and plants, also, helps avoid damage by lawn equipment getting too close. Additionally, keeping a mulched area beneath trees avoids allelopathy and competition for nutrients and moisture by turfgrass.
You are considering whether to ship plants to a state your company has never dealt with. Which of the following groups of horticultural crops are commonly considered invasive species in more than one region of the United States of America?
purple loosestrife, tree-of-heaven, leafy spurge, kudzu, Japanese honeysuckle
dandelions, Japanese honeysuckle, Miscanthus grass, purple loosestrife, tree-of-heaven
Dandelions and Miscanthus grass are not invasive species.
purple loosestrife, tree-of-heaven, Russian olive, poison ivy, Gayfeather
Gayfeather is not an invasive species.
dandelions, tamarisk, Russian olive, Gayfeather, tree-of-heaven
Remember, an invasive species is defined as "an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health." Dandelions and Gayfeather are not invasive species.
Question 3 Explanation:
Yes, each of these is considered an invasive species.
Your landscape company has an accepted bid on a jobsite. Besides organic matter testing, what soil tests would you routinely order from a certified soil testing laboratory?
lead levels, presence of residual herbicides, argon levels
None of these would be included in a routine soil test.
pH, soil-water ratio, sodium level
Only pH would be included in a routine soil test; sodium is not routinely analyzed alone, but rather included in the EC measurement of soluble salts. Soil water is measured in the field or pot via a tensiometer.
pH, nitrate-nitrogen levels, salt levels
presence of mold, soil-water ratio, pH
Only pH would be included in a routine soil test. Soil water is measured in the field or pot via a tensiometer, and presence of mold would require a soil pathology analysis.
Question 4 Explanation:
Routine soil tests include pH, EC, and analysis for macronutrients.
Which of the following affects the application efficiency of irrigation systems?
increased lateral pipe size
Increased lateral pipe size affects the volume of water available for delivery from each head, but it does not affect the application efficiency.
class or schedule of pipe
"Schedule," e.g. 40 and 80, refers to the wall thickness of the pipe and, thus, the rated water pressure it can deliver. Schedule 80 pipe has thicker walls than schedule 40, thus it can handle greater water pressure.
water source location
Distance from the water source may affect pressure of delivery at each head, but it will not affect efficiency.
Question 5 Explanation:
If irrigation heads are spaced too closely, application efficiency of irrigation is reduced, as some areas between heads will receive too much water.
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